A precise location or place on a plane. Usually represented by a dot, a cross or an x. Since a point is a place, not a thing, it has no dimensions. We label points with capital letters.
A geometrical object that is straight, infinitely long and infinitely thin. A line is one-dimensional. It has zero width. Using two points, we can create only one line.
|In the figure above, the line PQ passes through the points P and Q, and goes off in both directions forever, and is perfectly straight. A line, strictly speaking, has no ends.|
VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL LINES
A vertical line is one which runs up and down the page.
A horizontal line is one which runs left-to-right across the page. It comes from the word 'horizon', in the sense that horizontal lines are parallel to the horizon.
A portion of a line which starts at a point and goes off in a particular direction to infinity. One way to think of a ray is a line with one end. The point where the ray starts is called the endpoint. A ray is one-dimensional. It has zero width. A ray has no measurable length, because it goes on forever in one direction.
|P is the endpoint|
A straight line which links two points without extending beyond them. A line segment is one-dimensional. It has a measurable length, but has zero width.
|P and Q are the endpoints of the line segment y|
MIDPOINT OF A LINE SEGMENT
A point on a line segment that divides it into two equal parts. The halfway point of a line segment.
|M is the midpoint|
P and Q are the endpoints of the line segment
INTERSECTION OF LINES
The point where two lines or two line segments meet or cross.
|In the figure above we would say that "point K is the intersection of line
segments PQ and AB". |
Another way it may be said is that "the line segment PQ intersects AB at point K".
Lines are parallel if they lie in the same plane, and are the same distance apart over their entire length. No matter how far you extend them, they will never meet.
A line is perpendicular to another if it meets or crosses it at right angles (90°).
|AB is perpendicular to DF|
Language and notation of the circle
A circle is a line forming a closed loop, every point on which is a fixed distance from a center point.
A circumference is how far you have to go around the circle or if you put a string on the circle, how long will the string have to be.
A flat surface that is infinitely large and with zero thickness. The plane has two dimensions: length and width. But since the plane is infinitely large, the length and width cannot be measured.
A flat surface that is infinitely large and with zero thickness. You can think of parallel planes as sheets of cardboard one above the other with a gap between them. Parallel planes are the same distance apart everywhere, and so they never touch.
|The two bases of this cilinder are parallel planes|
If two planes are not parallel, then they will intersect (cross over) each other somewhere. Two planes always intersect at a line, as shown on the right.
This is similar to the way two lines intersect at a point.
When making technical drawings, REMEMBER:
- DATA: Use your 0,4 technical pen. (You will often find data given)
- AUXILIARY or CONSTRUCTRIONS LINES AND ARCS: Use your 0,2 technical pen.
- SOLUTIONS or RESULTS: Use your 0,8 technical pen.
If you are not using your technical pen but pencils:
- DATA: Use your HB pencil. (You will often find data given)
- AUXILIARY or CONSTRUCTRIONS LINES AND ARCS: Use your 2H-3H... pencil.
- SOLUTIONS or RESULTS: Use your HB pencil underlining twice.